The testicles are part of the male reproductive system They are two egg-shaped glands inside the scrotum. Testicles produce the male hormone testosterone and sperm. Sperm is produced by germ cells in the testicles. It travels to the epididymis and goes through the vas deferens, looping around the bladder and traveling through the urethra and out of the body during ejaculation. Testicular cancer develops in the germ cells of one or both testicles and forms a tumor. There are two main types of testicular tumors; seminomas and nonseminomas. Seminomas are more easily treated with radiation therapy, while nonseminomas grow and spread quicker. Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in young men. Men are at greater risk if they have an abnormal or undescended testicle or a family history of this cancer. Symptoms include a swollen or painful testicle or an ache in the lower stomach or groin. Testicular cancer can be diagnosed through ultrasound studies, blood tests and tumor biopsies. Testicular cancer can often be cured. Treatment options include surgical removal of the testicle, chemotherapy, and radiation. While surgery may involve the removal of one or both testicles, a prosthetic (fake) testicle may be placed inside the scrotum to provide a more normal appearance. Treatment can cause infertility. Men who wish to have children should consider storing sperm in a sperm bank prior to treatment.
MD Anderson Cancer Center
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center is one of the original three comprehensive cancer centers in the United States established by the National Cancer Act of 1971. Click to Visit
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